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INDIRECT SPEECH COULD

INDIRECT SPEECH COULD


                           
A. COULD with present or future meaning        
Could you? Could I ?                   
1. Could you ? Invitation  Is reported by ask or invite :    
"Could you have lunch with me tomorrow?" he said.        
He invited me to have lunch with him the next day.        
                           
Could you have lunch with  tomorrow? He asked. Could be treated  
as an ordinary question, and reported:            
He asked if I could have lunch with him.          
He asked if I would be free to have lunch with him.      
                           
                           
2. Could you ? Request is normally reported by       
Ask + Object + Infinitive:                
"Could you get tickets?" he said              
He asked me to get the tickets.              
                           
                           
3. Could I have? / Could you give me? is normally reported by  
ask for:                        
Could I have a drink? He said.              
He asked me for a drink.                
                           
                           
4. Could I? Request for permission             
is normally reported unchanged              
"Could I use your phone, please? She said          
She asked if she could use my phone.            
but                          
Could I see/ speak to / talk to? Can be reported by      
ask for / ask to see etc                  
                           
Could I see Mr. Smith, please?" she said.          
She asked for Mr. Smith/ asked to see Mr. Smith.      
                           
5. Could I/you/he/she/they? Can be an ordinary question    
with present or future meaning. Could be reported unchanged:  
                           
"Could you live in London with $ 50 a week?" He said.    
He asked if I could live in London with $ 50 a week.      
"Could you get off early tomorrow?" He said.        
He asked if I could get off early the next day        
                           
                           
B. COULD with past meaning              
Could  for permission can remain the same or change to     
was/were allowed to or had been allowed          
                           
He said,"when I was young I couldn't interrupt my parents."  
He said that when he was young he couldn't/ wasn't allowed to  
interrupt his parents.                  
                           
C. COULD  for ability                  
                           
Could for present ability does not change:          
                           
I said,"Could you stand on your head?          
I asked him if he could stand on his head.          
                           
Could for past ability can remain unchanged or become     
had been able:                    
                           
He said,"I could read when I was three."          
He said that if he could read when he was three.        
He said that if he had been able to read when he was three.  
                           
D. COULD in conditional Type               
Could in  if clause remains unchanged :          
                           
She said,'If I could drive I'd take you there myself.      
She said that if she could drive she'd take me there herself.  
                           
Could in the main clause remains unchanged when the    
the supposition is contrary to fact:            
                           
She said," If I had some flour, she could make a cake.( she  
hasn't any flour )                    
She said that if she had some flour she could make a cake.  
                           
                           

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