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ing clauses

ing clauses



                         
  A clause is a part of a sentence. Some sentences have      
  two causes :                  
                         
  Feeling tired, I went to bed early.          
  Because I felt tired, I went to bed early.      
                         
  I went to bed early  { the main clause }        
  Feeling tired   { - ing clause }          
                         
                         
  When two things happen at the same time, you can       
  use - ing for one of the verbs. The main clause usually       
  comes first :                  
                         
  She was sitting in the armchair reading a book.
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  She was sitting and she reading.      
                   
  I ran out of the house shouting.          
  I was shouting when I ran out of the hose.      
                         
  We also use - ing when one action happens during       
  another. - ing for the longer action.        
  The longer action is the second part of the sentence.      
                         
  Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.{ while he was playing
  tennis }                    
                         
  I cut myself shaving.{ I was shaving }        
                         
  You can use  - ing after while or when :      
                         
           
         
  Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.          
  While Jim was playing tennis.          
                         
  Be careful when crossing the street.        
  When you are crossing              
                         
                         
  When one action happens before another action, you      
  can use "HAVING + past participle" for the first      
  action:                    
                         
  Having found a hotel, they looked for somewhere to  
  have dinner.                  
                         
  Having finished our work, we went home.      
                         
  you can also say   After - ing :          
                         
  After finishing our work, we went home.      
                         
                         
  If the second action happens immediately  after the       
  first , you can use the simple - ing form:      
                         
  Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.  
                         
                         
  You can also use an - ing clause to explain or to say      
  why someone did something .          
  The - ing clause usually comes first :        
                         
                         
  Feeling tired, I went to bed early. {  because I felt tired }
  Being unemployed, she doesn't have much money.  
  { because she is unemployed }          
                         
  Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around.  
  { because she doesn't have a car }        
  Having already seen the film twice, I didn't want to go to
  the movies.                  
  { because she had already seen it twice }      
                         
                         

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